As moving through the amazing natural beauties of Antalya and its surroundings, you will advance into a higher wellness The southern coast of Turkey, known as the Turkish Riviera, contains sandy beaches offering eight months of swimming a year, magnificent landscapes and a multitude of historic sites. Bathed in sunshine for 300 or so days of the year, it is a paradise for sunbathing and swimming.
Unfolding along a belt 100-200km wide between the Taurus Mountains and the sea, the region has been a focal point of cultural interaction, commercial relations and political confrontations throughout history.....
Since early times, the region has seen the founding of heavily populated cities, turning rich and prosperous.
Można zrozumieć, dlaczego Antalya stała się tak popularnym miejscem turystycznym. Bajecznie kolorowe kwiaty egzotyczne, szum wody z zatoki i widok gór robią duże wrażanie. W Aquaparku na wschodnim wybrzeżu można uprawiać każdy ze sportów wodnych (na uwagę zasługują także wspaniałe zjeżdżalnie wodne). Przystań Kaleiçi w Antalyi oraz Centrum Wypoczynkowe są uważane za najpiękniejsze porty w Turcji. Są tu sklepy z pamiątkami, przytulne kafejki, restauracje oraz przystanie. Żegluj rano, a wieczorem odpoczywaj na przystani – tak może brzmieć jedno z haseł reklamowych Antalyi! Rozświetlone nocą mury starego miasta tworzą atmosferę spokoju. Sprawiają wrażenie, jakby czas się tu zatrzymał.
Skąpany w słońcu przez trzysta dni w roku region jest rajem dla miłośników kąpieli słonecznych, windsurfingu, narciarstwa wodnego, żeglarstwa, wspinaczki górskiej i zwiedzania jaskiń. Antalya jest idealnym miejscem także dla tych osób, które cenią sobie piękne krajobrazy. Posiadające historyczną wartość budowle, sosny, gaje oliwne, palmy, drzewa cytrusowe – wszystko to składa się na widok zapierający dech w piersiach. Riwiera Turecka to turystyczna stolica Turcji. Jest w pełni przystosowana do potrzeb przybywających tu osób. Na gości czekają tu różnej klasy hotele i ośrodki wczasowe. Wszystkich przybyszy urzeknie gościnność tutejszych mieszkańców.
There are many ancient settlements along the Turkish Riviera, some of which are included in UNESCO’s World Heritage List. Besides this historical and cultural wealth, its natural beauty, beaches of golden sand and excellent accommodation facilities offering world-class service make the Turkish Riviera a heaven for vacationers.
Situated at the end of the gulf to which it has given its name, Antalya is spread over a green plateau that runs parallel to the sea. With its blue sea, luminous sky, the ever-changing colour of its mountains and lush green vegetation, the city is a festival of colours.
Antalya was founded in 158-138BC by Attalus II, King of Pergamon, who named the city Attaleia after himself. Having been inhabited continuously since then, it was encircled by strong protective walls in Roman times. The Byzantines and Seljuks successively occupied the city before it came under Ottoman rule. Today it is one of the world’s best-loved tourist resorts, with numerous five-star hotels, holiday villages and entertainment establishments. Besides the chances Antalya offers for skiing on the mountains and then descending to the shore for a swim, the proximity of a great number of archaeological sites and ruins enhances its appeal. There are great works of art from different civilizations at every corner of the city.
In the picturesque old quarter of Kaleiçi, narrow, winding streets and old wooden houses abut the ancient city walls. When Emperor Hadrian visited Phaselis in Antalya in 130AD, a beautifully-decorated threearched gate with Corinthian columns was built into the city walls in his honour. It was the only entrance through the city walls. The two towers flanking the gate, as well as other sections of the walls, are standing near the marina. The clock tower in Kalekapısı Square was also part of the old city’s towers. The elegant, fluted minaret of the Yivli Minaret Mosque at the centre of the city, built by the Seljuk Sultan Alaeddin Keykubat in the 13th century, has become Antalya’s symbol.
The Karatay Madrasah in the Kaleiçi district, from the same period, exemplifies the best of Seljuk stone carving. The two most important Ottoman mosques in the city are the 16th-century Murat Paşa Mosque, remarkable for its tile decoration, and the 18th-century Tekeli Mehmet Paşa Mosque. Neighbouring the marina, the attractive late 19th-century İskele Mosque is built of cut stone and set on four pillars over a natural spring. The Hıdırlık Kulesi (tower) was probably constructed as a lighthouse in the second century. The Kesik Minaret Mosque, which was previously a church, bears witness to the city’s long history. The major part of the southern coastline falls within the borders of the city of Antalya. With ancient cities hidden among the trees, lush-green plateaus and forests with oxygen-rich air, trekking routes and beautiful beaches, Antalya is a holiday paradise offering much more than one might expect. Hotspots along the coastline: Visitors can also find a number of touristic hotspots along the coastline away from the city centre. Kemer, 42km from Antalya through a spectacular mountain scenery, is the first such spot to the west of the city. This resort town has been carefully designed to blend in with the surrounding scenery and offers an ideal environment for a wonderful holiday. The fully equipped Kemer Marina allows yachtsmen to enjoy the unspoiled bays and beaches on the south of the town. Shoppers will delight in the wonderful range of highquality souvenirs. A beach promenade with its cafes and shops on the north of the marina leads directly to Kemer Beach which was awarded a Blue Flag. Other tourist centres to the north are Kızıltepe, Göynük and Beldibi while to the south there is Çamyuva and Tekirova .
At the foot of 2575m-high Mt Tahtalı (Olympos), 15km south of Kemer, the three harbours of Phaselis were once major commercial centres. The ruins of aqueducts, agoras, baths, a theatre, Hadrian’s Gate and an acropolis reveal the city’s historical importance. The ancient city of Olympos is situated on the southern side of Mt Tahtalı. Oleander and laurel bushes shade the Olympos Valley, accessible by land or sea. North of Olympos and up from Çıralı Beach is Yanartaş (at a height of 300m) where, Greek mythology tells us, the Lycian hero Bellerophon mounted his winged horse Pegasus and slew the fire-breathing Chimaera. The Karain Cave, which dates from the Palaeolithic Age, is the oldest known cave where human lived in Anatolia. A single entrance, lit by the morning sun, opens onto three large interconnecting chambers.
Although the little museum at the entrance displays some of its finds, most of the artefacts discovered are housed in museums around Turkey, with some of them dating to 160,000BC. The ruins of the city of Termessos are perched on a 1050m-high plateau, lying on the western slopes of Güllük Mountain (Solymos) within Güllük Mountain National Park that is situated to the northwest of Antalya. A wild and splendid landscape surrounds the monumental traces of this city, and a nature and wildlife museum can be found at the park’s entrance.
Limyra, an ancient Lycian city, can be found 10km inland from Finike via Turunçova. Farther along this road is the Lycian city of Arykanda. It was inhabited by at least 500BC and was destroyed several times by fire or earthquake. The ancient city of Myra, now called Demre or Kale, is 25km west of Finike. St Nicholas, who was born in Patara, was the bishop of Myra during the fourth century AD, and died there in 345. The island of Kekova, an hour from Çayağzı by sea, gives its name to a whole group of picturesque islands, numerous bays and ancient cities.
Continuing west out of Kekova you come to Kaş, a lovely spot surrounded by mountains on three sides. Swimming and diving are excellent in the clear cool water around Kaş. Along the scenic Kalkan road, Kaputaş has a beautiful beach at one end of the Turquoise Grotto.
A little distance to the west is Kalkan, a lovely small hilltop town that overlooks a tiny bay. The ancient Lycian capital of Xanthos, today in the village of Kınık, and the Lycian cultic centre of Letoon are included on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Relish your eternal moment of sunbathing just after an excellent skiing experience Enjoy two seasons in the same day Saklıkent, 50km from Antalya, is an ideal winter sports resort at an altitude of 1750-1900m on the northern slopes of Bakırlı Mountain. In March and April you can ski in the morning, eat a delicious lunch of fresh fish at Antalya’s marina and then go on to sunbathe, swim and windsurf in the afternoon. You can see wildlife – deer and mountain goat – as part of a conservation program in Düzlerçamı Park, north of Antalya, and on the way, you can stop at the astonishing 115m-deep Güver Canyon.
Beautiful cascades The eastern part of Antalya is as rich as its western part. The sandy Lara Beach lies about 12km to the east. At the Upper Düden Waterfalls, 14km northeast of Antalya, you can walk behind the rushing cascade for a thrilling experience.
On the way to Lara Beach, the Lower Düden Waterfalls plunge straight into the sea, with the nearby rest area that offers an excellent view of the falls, while the view is even more spectacular from the sea. Kurşunlu Waterfall and Nilüfer Lake, both 18km from Antalya, are two other places of superb natural beauty.
Beyond sun, sand and sea Abundant and up-to-date tourist facilities as well as well-preserved historical sites give you a number of options for daily activities. Perge (18km from Antalya) was an important city of ancient Pamphylia, which St Paul visited on his first missionary journey. Swimmers and sunbathers alike enjoy Belek, a modern luxurious holiday centre and golfer’s paradise, 40km from Antalya. A photogenic Seljuk bridge crosses the Köprü River from the road to Aspendos.
The Aspendos Theatre is the bestpreserved theatre of antiquity, with a capacity of 15,000 spectators. Still used today, the theatre’s galleries, stage decorations and acoustics all testify to the architect’s success. Nearby stand the remains of a basilica, an agora and one of the largest aqueducts in Anatolia. On the northeast of Antalya at the turn off for Taşağıl and Beşkonak is the scenic route that leads to the Köprülü Canyon National Park.
The twisting road winds over mountain streams and passes through virgin cedar forest. It is often a slow drive because the view at every turn is more beautiful than the last. The national park, 92km from Antalya, is a beautiful valley rich in flora and fauna.
Side, one of the best-known classical sites in Turkey, was an ancient harbour whose name once meant pomegranate. Today it is a pretty resort town. Its ancient ruins, two sandy beaches, numerous shops and extensive tourist accommodation attract throngs of visitors. Tucked in pine forests on the east of Side, the holiday resorts of Sorgun, Titreyengöl and Kızılağaç are popular for their sandy beaches and sparkling sea. The atmosphere is relaxed, the accommodation plentiful and the activities endless. To the west of Side are the holiday centres of Kumköy, Çolaklı and Kamelya, offering sun and sea in close proximity to the ancient sites.
At Seleucia of Pamphylia (Bucakşıhlar), 15km northeast of Side, are the remains of Roman baths, temples, churches, a mausoleum, theatre and agora which are in good condition. One of the most interesting and well-known caves in Turkey is located in Altınbeşik Cave National Park situated 12km southeast of Aydınkent (İbradı) and 55km north of Manavgat. Lakes and interesting rock formations within the cave area, as well as travertines and streams, make this area especially fascinating. Altınbeşik Cave is situated on the western slopes of the Manavgat River Valley and can be reached via Ürünlü, an authentic village and a must-see when travelling through this area. The Alarahan Caravanserai was built by the Seljuk Sultan Alaeddin Keykubat in 1230 on the banks of the Alara River. At the top of a nearby hill the Alara Fortress commands a view of the whole area.
The large and popular resort centre of Alanya lies at one end of a rocky promontory which juts out into the Mediterranean between two long sandy beaches.
A fortress, repaired by the Seljuks in 1231 and one of the most magnificent sights on the coast, crowns the headland. Nearly 150 towers punctuate the walls of the well-preserved, doublewalled citadel. Within the outer walls are ruins of mosques, a caravanserai and a covered bazaar and within the inner walls can be found a ruined cistern and a Byzantine church. Although Alanya’s history dates back to Roman times, it rose to prominence under the Seljuks when in 1220 Alaeddin Keykubat made it his winter residence and naval base. The surviving buildings reflect the importance of the city in Seljuk times. Besides the impressive citadel, tourists should explore the unique dockyards and the octagonal Kızıl Kule (Red Tower).
At Seleucia of Pamphylia (Bucakşıhlar), 15km northeast of Side, are the remains of Roman baths, temples, churches, a mausoleum, theatre and agora which are in good condition. One of the most interesting and well-known caves in Turkey is located in Altınbeşik Cave National Park situated 12km southeast of Aydınkent (İbradı) and 55km north of Manavgat. Lakes and interesting rock formations within the cave area, as well as travertines and streams, make this area especially fascinating. Altınbeşik Cave is situated on the western slopes of the Manavgat River Valley and can be reached via Ürünlü, an authentic village and a must-see when travelling through this area. The Alarahan Caravanserai was built by the Seljuk Sultan Alaeddin
The city of Burdur is known throughout Turkey for its beautiful lakes, as well as for its carpets and kilims. Burdur preserves excellent examples of Ottoman regional architecture, in particular the Taşoda (now the Ethnography Museum), Kocaoda (also known as Çelikbaş) and Mısırlılar konaks or mansions dating back to the 17th century.
Both the interior and exterior decors reveal much of the Ottoman aesthetic. The BurdurArchaeological Museum houses some very important artefacts from around the region. Burdur Lake, which has nice beaches for swimming, is a superb location for water sports. A climb to the top of Susamlık Hill gives you a panoramic view over the city and lake.
The İnsuyu Cave, 10km south on the road to Antalya, is 597m in length with nine distinct pools and chambers filled with stalactites and stalagmites. Kremna (Çamlık) was an important Pisidian city and today contains Roman and Byzantine era ruins; it is 60km from Burdur.
The İncirhan Caravanserai, which was built in the 13th century by the Seljuk ruler Giyasettin Keykubat, is located 7km west of Bucak in İncirdere (Dereköy). At Gölhisar (Cibyra), a hundred kilometres southwest of Burdur, ruins of an important ancient northern Lycian city can be found dating from Roman times; thereis a stadium, lower and upper agora, theatre, necropolis and large aqueducts.
Enclosed in the mountains of the region and 1193m above sea level is the beautiful Lake Salda, an ideal spot for relaxing and cooling off at one of its sandy beaches or at the lakeside cafes,hotels and restaurants. Also in theregion is Hacılar Höyük (mound) withceramics dating from 5400 to 8500BC – the site was excavated in 1950s. The ancient site of Sagalassos can be found 33km east of Burdur and 7km south of the town of Ağlasun. As the Pisidian capital, it has ruins from Roman times including a memorial entrance gate, colonnaded street, lower and upper agoras, temple and magnificent theatre.
Mersin, a rising star of world tourism, is set on a long length of coastline in the eastern part of the Turkish Riviera and boasts the cleanest seawater along this coast. It is a city of long beaches and enchanting inlets with the Taurus Mountains rising immediately behind them. Mersin is one of the important ports of the Mediterranean and a centre of maritime commerce, just as it was during ancient times. The plains of this sun-kissed city are resplendent with some of the best lemon and orange groves in Turkey and its countless vineyards curl up into the low foothills of the mountains.
The story of mankind began a long, long time ago in Mersin. The Çukurova plain, one of the best naturally irrigated and fertile spots in the Mediterranean basin, was the site of one of the first settlements where people learned to work the land. What is more, there were also forests just behind this great plain so suitable for agriculture. The first settlements in this area, known in ancient times as Cilicia, date back to the Prehistoric age. The city of Mersin (ancient Zephyrium) occupies the site of an extremely ancient city known as Kizuwatna of the Hittites At the Yumuktepe Tumulus, 3km west of the city, excavations have unearthed several successive settlements dating back to 6000BC and the Neolithic age. There are remains of various civilizations throughout Mersin, but the majority are from the Roman, Byzantine and Turkish eras.
Eleven kilometres west of Mersin can be found a row of Corinthian columns that once lined the main street of Viranşehir (ancient Pompeiopolis and Soloi), founded in 700BC by the Rhodians. At Kanlıdivane are the ruins of ancient Kanytelis, with tombs resembling small temples, and churches and sarcophagi dating from Roman and Byzantine times. The city and its ruins can be found on the sides of a deep chasm. Kızkalesi, 50km southwest of Mersin, is a lovely county with fine sandy beaches, motels and camp sites. It is also home to the ancient city of Korykos.
The 12thcentury castle of Korykos on the shore faces another castle, Kızkalesi (Maiden’s Castle), standing on a tiny island 200m offshore. Just beyond Kızkalesi, on a bay lined with fish restaurants at the little fishing village of Narlıkuyu, a Roman mosaic known as the Three Graces can be found. Further on at the bottom of a valley is a naturally formed cave, 275m by 125m in size, known as Cennet (Heaven) and there is also a deep chasm (50-75m wide and 80-120m deep) called Cehennem (Hell). In the so-called Vale of Heaven are the ruins of a temple converted into a Christian chapel in the fifth century. Nearby is the deep Narlıkuyu Cave full of stalagmites, stalactites and calcium carbonate, with stairs carved by the Romans. The humid air of the cave reportedly helps those who suffer from respiratory diseases. East of Mersin, on the edge of the fertile Çukurova Plain, is Tarsus, the birthplace of St Paul and once a capital. Of the many ancient cities in Mersin, Cilician Seleucia, Demircili (Imbriogon), Uzuncaburç (Diocaesarea), Ura (Olba) and Anamur (Anamorium) are the most important ones. In each of these ancient settlements visitors have the opportunity to see such historical structures as temples, bridges and ancient theatres dating back thousands of years.
Besides its historical and cultural wealth, Mersin charms visitors with its natural beauty and excellent beaches. Ovacık, 44km west of Taşucu, is a quiet spot well-known for its fisherman’s wharf and beach. The Peninsula (ancient Cavaliere) of Ovacık is one of the natural highlights of Turkey, an ideal area for diving. The surrounding sailing waters to the west of Ovacık are clearly marked, ensuring yacht safety along this breathtaking stretch of coast.
The shore road that clings to the pine-clad mountain slopes steeply down to the sea, offering spectacular views of cliffs, coves and crystal clear waters of the Mediterranean. 36km to the west of Aydıncık district is Bozyazı, a holiday centre with clean and roomy camping sites along its wide beaches. The county of Anamur is nestled in between the mountains, with banana plantations surrounding it. Situated on terraces above the sea, it is perfect for a climb to the top which overlooks one of the cleanest and most pristine coasts in Turkey.
Set in the heart of the Çukurova (Cilician) Plain, Turkey’s fourth largest city Adana has a history that goes back as far as the 7th millennium BC. The numerous civilizations that occupied and dominated the land left layers of archaeological treasures, clues for the region’s complex past. While history buffs can enjoy exploring the ruins of ancient cities, nature-lovers find repose breathing the cool, clean air on the slopes and plateaus of the Taurus Mountains.
Adana is one of those rare cities that have remained important throughout history. Occupying a key strategic location on both the trading routes and military roads, Adana has been settled ceaselessly while the civilizations ruling the city have changed sporadically. Eighteen civilizations have ruled the city with each leaving their imprint, whether a building, monument or inscription, as if trying to make their dominion eternal over the region. Each civilization that coveted and won the region can today be traced in the ruins they left behind. The mysteries of the civilizations that have played a role in the history of Adana are sometimes concealed in ancient cities and sometimes in earthen mounds that crop up on the plains around the cities. There are more than ten significant ancient settlements in the province that amply demonstrate the historical and cultural wealth to which modern Adana is heir. The ancient city of Misis is located on the banks of the Ceyhan River on the highway between Adana and Ceyhan.
The history of this ancient settlement, called Yakapınar today, goes back three millennia to the Hittite Period when the city was built on the primary military and trading roads. The nine-arch Misis Bridge across the Ceyhan River was built in the 4th century AD during the Roman Era and the Misis Mosaics Museum houses mosaics found in local excavations. Near the coastal town of Yumurtalık are the ruins of the ancient city of Ayas. The city includes ruins of Asclepeion. Other structures worth visiting in town are the Liman (Harbour) Castle, the Tower of Süleyman and Marco Polo’s pier Magarsus that was established on the land stretching from the sea cliffs to the present day village of Küçük Karataş. It was the religious centre of the ancient city of Mallos, which was one of the prime cities of ancient Cilicia, renowned for its temples, in particular, for the Temple of Athena where Alexander the Great once prayed. The ancient city of Anazarbus (Anavarza), included in the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List, became the capital of Cilicia in 408. It is an open-air museum, showcasing a superb triumphal arch, fortress, columns and two mosaic-paved pools. Şar was an important centre for the Hittites, with the most striking structure being the Ala Gate- part of a temple erected in the 2nd century AD during the Roman Era. Revealing the secret history of Adana, at part of present day neighbourhood of Tepebağ are ongoing excavations. Findings from the Tepebağ mound include ancient artefacts and fine examples of late Ottoman civilian architecture.
Visitors can also see the historical structures at the city centre that shed further light on history. The 310m-long Taşköprü (Stone Bridge) built by Hadrian and repaired by Justinian spans the Seyhan River which bisects the town; only 14 of the bridge’s original 21 arches still stand. The oldest mosque in Adana is the Akça or Ağca Masjid completed in 1489. Also of interest is Ulu Mosque built in 1509, one of Adana’s oldest mosques. Famous for its glazed tiles, the mosque is situated next to the Akça Masjid. To the east, there is a madrasah originally built in 1540. Mestanzade Mosque, which was completed in 1682, is believed to be one of the earliest examples of the Western influence in Ottoman architecture. Near the Mestanzade Mosque stands the Yeni Mosque, built in 1724 in a style that clearly indicates the influence of Mamluk architecture and decorative arts. The Hasan Ağa Mosque was completed in 1558 and is the only example of classical Ottoman architecture in the city centre. As the largest mosque in Turkey, Sabancı Mosque’s classical appearance belies its recent construction; it is an indispensable image of Adana that is featured on innumerable postcards.
The Hoşkadem Mosque located in the Fortress of Kozan was commissioned by the Sultan of Egypt Emir Abdullah Hoşkadem in 1448 and built in Mamluk style. The trading importance of Adana is the reason why many caravanserais and inns were built to accommodate goods and traders on their journeys. The 18thcentury Kurtkulağı Caravanserai in the village of Kurtkulağı and the Tuz Inn are still in a reasonably preserved state. The Tuz Inn was actually part of the oldest Turkish mansion, the Ramazanoğlu Mansion, which was built in 1495. It is where the Ottoman sultans stayed when their military campaigns passed through Adana. The Catholic Church of St Paul was built in the 1880s in the Tepebağ neighbourhood. The two-and-a half metre bronze statue of the Virgin Mary that tops the church’s gable wall gives it the popular name of Bebekli Church (literally the church with a doll). The Yağ Mosque, which stands next to a madrasah, was once a church. With the addition of a minaret in 1501 during the Ramazanoğulları Principality, it began to serve as a mosque. Any tour of the city must also include the charming Ethnography Museum, the Atatürk Culture Museum and the Archaeological Museum which displays locally excavated Hittite and Roman remains.
In the north of the city, at the Seyhan Dam and Lake, are shady walks, quaint tea gardens and restaurants set in cool spots where you can escape the heat. At sunset, look back toward the city to the peaceful, winding ruby river lined with twinkling lights. Adana’s coastline is short, especially when compared with that of other provinces along the Turkish Riviera. However, some of the most beautiful beaches in Turkey lie along this coastline, where visitors can swim in crystal clear waters and feast their eyes on the riches of local culture, landscape and history. Karataş Beach, just half an hour from Adana, is next to the ruins of the ancient city of Magarsus. Explore the ruins, and after your arduous walk, dive straight into the sea for a refreshing swim – all in one exhilarating day!
The exceptionally beautiful beach at Yumurtalık is within striking distance of the ruins at Ayas and the area is home to other fortresses and sites of historical interest. The summer months in Adana are swelteringly hot and its inhabitants have found that the best way to cope it is to retire to the mountain plateaus that surround the city. Hundreds of years of summer tradition have made the plateaus a distinct part of the culture of Adana. The timber houses as well as such handicrafts as wood and copper artefacts and utensils, kilims (rugs) and woven fabrics made by the yörük (nomadic herders), who live in mountains, are the physical elements that have shaped the culture of the plateaus. Horzum, Çulluuşağı, Belemedik, Akçatekir and Armutoğlu are among the plateaus that nature-lovers can enjoy visiting. After a day of sightseeing you can enjoy an Adana kebab, a sensational spicy kebab made of ground meat, as tasting local beverages like shalgam, a drink made from dark turnips, and shıra, a type of grape juice. The region’s classical cuisine will delight the palate of the most discriminating gourmet...
Stosunki dyplomatyczne pomiędzy Osmanami (Imperium Osmańskim) i Królestwem Polskim zostały nawiązane w 1414 roku, ponieważ oba państwa były bezpośrednimi sąsiadami od późnego średniowiecza do końca 18. wieku.
600-lecie nawiązania stosunków dyplomatycznych było obchodzone w 2014 roku.
Ul. Krakowskie Przedmiescie 19/1
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