Yearly, thousands of foreign holiday-makers and expats descend on the small and picturesque town of Oludeniz on the coast of Turkey. Lured by the summer climate, wide use of the English language and the scenic appearance, a result of being tucked in neatly to a green valley, the village also has a calming and simple vibe evident in the happy go lucky nature of the Turks. By far though, the biggest assets that the resort has are Oludeniz beach and the Blue Lagoon.
Tourism posters for Turkey mostly feature well-known historical landmarks or places of natural beauty. From the east to the west, plenty exist and one that ranks at the top of the list is the Blue Lagoon of Oludeniz.
Brits tend to have a saying about small beaches and sunbeds that make it seem like “sunbathers are all packed in like sardines” - This will never happen on the Blue flag Oludeniz beach. Long and wide, the golden sand stretches from the Blue Lagoon, up to the edge of the village and the aqua colour water, has a warm temperature luring swimmers.
As if plucked from a whimsical fairytale and set down upon the stark Anatolian plains, Cappadocia is a geological oddity of honeycombed hills and towering boulders of otherworldly beauty. The fantastical topography is matched by the human history here. People have long utilised the region's soft stone, seeking shelter underground and leaving the countryside scattered with fascinating cavern architecture. The fresco-adorned rock-cut churches of Göreme Open-Air Museum and the subterranean refuges of Derinkuyu and Kaymaklı are the most famous sights, while simply bedding down in one of Cappadocia's cave hotels is an experience in 21st-century cave living.
Whether you're wooed here by the hiking potential, the history or the bragging rights of becoming a modern troglodyte for a night, it's the lunarscape panoramas that you'll remember. This region's accordion-ridged valleys, shaded in a palette of dusky orange and cream, are an epiphany of a landscape – the stuff of psychedelic daydreams.
The Lycian way is a 509 km way-marked footpath around the coast of Lycia in southern Turkey, from Fethiye to Antalya. It was researched, designed and implemented by Kate Clow with Terry Richardson. The Lycian Way is a coastal walk and mild temperatures mean it can be walked throughout the winter months.According to the Sunday Times the Lycian Way is one of the ten most beautiful long distance hikes of the world.
The route is graded medium to hard; it is not level walking, but has many ascents and descents as it approaches and veers away from the sea. It is easier at the start near Fethiye and gets more difficult as it progresses. We recommend walking the route in spring or autumn; February-May or September-November; summer in Lycia is hot, although you could walk short, shady sections. The route is mainly over footpaths and mule trails; it is mostly over limestone and often hard and stony underfoot.
Without a shadow of a doubt, Istanbul – like London, New York or Paris – is one of the world’s great cities. Superbly situated either side of the blue ribbon of the Bosphorus Strait separating Europe from Asia it is, unlike any other city in the world, split between two continents.
Istanbul has become a year-round destination. Visit in late spring or early autumn to enjoy warm, sunny days providing the ideal weather to explore this incredible city on foot. Midsummer is sultry, but this is a great time to enjoy an outdoor meal at a Bosphorus-front fish restaurant, or Turkish coffee at a pavement café. From mid-December through mid-March, cold winds blow in from the Black Sea; fog and even snow sometimes blanket the city. To compensate, there are plenty of sunny spells, far fewer visitors and lower prices.
Fortunately, most must-see historic sights stud the compact Sultanahmet district. Here the ornate pavilions of the Topkapı Palace sprawl behind the monumental Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia or Aya Sofya). Opposite rise the domes and minarets of the equally splendid Blue Mosque. The superb Süleymaniye Mosque Complex occupies a hill-top above the 4,000-plus shops of the medieval Grand Bazaar. Across the Golden Horn the conical cap of the Galata Tower marks the pulsating entertainment quarters of Karaköy, Galata and Beyoğlu; nearby the Bosphorus waterfront is home to the hip gallery, Istanbul Modern. Cheap ferry rides take visitors across to the Asian suburbs, north to the mouth of the Black Sea or up the Golden Horn to the city’s ancient land walls.
The surreal, brilliant white travertine terraces and warm, limpid pools of Pamukkale hang, like the petrified cascade of a mighty waterfall, from the rim of a steep valley side in Turkey’s picturesque southwest. Truly spectacular in its own right, the geological phenomenon that is Pamukkale, literally "Cotton Castle" in Turkish, is also the site of the remarkably well-preserved ruins of the Greek-Roman city of Hierapolis. With such a unique combination of natural and man-made wonders it’s little wonder that Pamukkale-Hierapolis has been made a Unesco World Heritage site. With over two million visitors annually, it is also Turkey’s single most visited attraction.
There are dramatic travertine terraces dotted all around the globe, from China to Iran, the USA to Afghanistan. But nowhere else in the world can visitors enjoy exploring both picturesque travertine formations, built up over the millennia from limestone deposited by the abundant hot springs, and the colonnaded streets, temples, bath houses, necropolis and theatre of the remains of an idyllically located Greek-Roman spa city, Hierapolis. You can even bathe, as the Romans once did, in a picturesque pool filled with warm (around 36C), mineral rich waters and swim amongst submerged columns of great antiquity.
Pamukkale-Hierapolis is situated on the western rim of the vast Anatolian plateau, around 120 miles east of the popular Aegean resort cum cruise ship port of Kusadasi, near Ephesus. Most visitors come on gruelling day trips from Aegean or Mediterranean resorts. The easiest way to visit under your own steam is to hire a car - the drive takes around three hours from Kusadasi, four from Antalya and Marmaris, five from Bodrum. Alternatively comfortable inter-city coaches run to Denizli, the nearest city to Pamukkale, from all the aforementioned places and take around the same time as driving. Frequent buses and minibuses make the 40 minute run between Denizli’s bus station and Pamukkale. Turkish Airlines (turkishairlines.com) and Pegasus (flypgs.com) both fly to Denizli’s Cardak airport from Istanbul. Rail buffs might be interested in the four times daily service between Izmir and Denizli, via Selcuk.
More urban, more casual and less rigorous, Van is very different in spirit from the rest of southeastern Anatolia. Young couples walk hand in hand on the main drag, live bands knock out Kurdish tunes in pubs, and a resilient population coping with the impact of recent earthquakes inspire a satisfying urban buzz.
While Van boasts a brilliant location near the eponymous lake, forget about water sports and beaches. Instead, focus on the striking monuments, including Van Kalesi (Van Castle or the Rock of Van), spend a few days journeying around the lake, and explore the nearby historic sites of Çavuştepe and Hoşap.
On the breathtaking road between Kalkan and Kas, the beach at Kaputas is formed by a gorge that opens out into a stretch of sand. The long flight of steps down from the road means there are no facilities on the beach, so take water and a parasol if you're planning to stay a while. It's a popular beach with locals, which gives it a very different feel to many of Turkey's more accessible stretches of coastline.
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Ararat is located at Agri in eastern Turkey near the Armenian and Iranian borders. As the crow flies, it is about 250 kilometers east of Erzurum, 130 kilometers southeast of Kars, and 160 kilometers north of Van. The main road between Turkey and Iran goes from Erzurum through Dogubayazit (just south of Ararat) to Tabriz. The summit of Mt. Ararat is 5,165 meters above sea level. It is higher than any mountain in the continental United States except for Alaska or in Europe outside the Caucasus.
Ararat is a dormant volcano; the last eruption was on June 2, 1840. At present the upper third of the mountain is covered with snow all the time; the last hundred meters of snow at the top have turned to ice. For climbers on the mountain, fresh running water is available after the sun has been up a while to melt the snow, but it is cut off in the late afternoon when cold air has overcome the heat of the sun. Below the snow the slopes are covered with great blocks of black basalt rock, some as large as village houses.
Founded by Greek traders from Miletus in the 8th century BC, Trabzon has been handballed down the years between Cimmerians, Medes, Hellenes, Byzantines and a succession of other peoples. Once an important stop on the Silk Road, it remains the Black Sea's busiest port. Somewhat louche, it's not the largest, but is certainly the most sophisticated city in the region, too caught up in its own whirl of activity to worry about what's happening in far-off İstanbul or Ankara.
Contrasting with the gracious, medieval church (now mosque) of Aya Sofya, and the one-time Byzantine monastery at nearby Sumela, the modern world shines through on Atatürk Alanı, Trabzon's busy main square in the eastern section of the city centre. Indeed, the exotic city Rose Macaulay described in The Towers of Trebizond (1956) is very much a distant memory now.
Stosunki dyplomatyczne pomiędzy Osmanami (Imperium Osmańskim) i Królestwem Polskim zostały nawiązane w 1414 roku, ponieważ oba państwa były bezpośrednimi sąsiadami od późnego średniowiecza do końca 18. wieku.
600-lecie nawiązania stosunków dyplomatycznych było obchodzone w 2014 roku.
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